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Our Process

At Westwin Elements, our innovative and environmentally conscious carbonyl refining process, proves our commitment to sustainability and responsible resource management.

Key Differentiators 

  • Lower operational costs  

  • Product flexibility  

  • Diverse feed inputs 

  • More than 200 years of combined carbonyl experience at Westwin Elements 

  • Lower environmental impact  

  • High purity products


Environmental Compliance

Reduced Energy Consumption

The carbonyl refining process is known for its energy efficiency, requiring less energy compared to traditional methods. This directly contributes to a reduction in our carbon footprint and promotes energy conservation.

Pilot Plant Process


Carbonyl Process Fact Sheet​

CO Emissions for Pilot Plant and estimations for commercial scale  


Pilot Scale  

  • Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions are below the Oklahoma minor source emissions level for potential to emit 

  • CO is combusted to Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in the thermal oxidizer. All process streams of CO pass through the thermal oxidizer before exiting the plant.  


Commercial Scale  

  • CO emissions are heavily monitored and controlled through multiple redundant thermal oxidizers and flare stacks.  

  • CO is recycled and purified with expected recycle rates of ~95%.  The remaining 5% of CO is neutralized through the thermal oxidizer or a flare stack before being emitted as carbon dioxide.  

  • CO is generated and purified on site.  

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Waste Streams (no solid waste for Pilot, minimal waste for dissolution) 



  • No solid waste 

  • Minor gaseous waste from thermal oxidizer, mostly CO2 - As defined by the Applicability Determination from ODEQ the total potential effect of the pilot plant on the local environment is classified as a minor source.   

  • Solid residue to be bagged and sold/ stored  

  • No process liquid waste 


Commercial Carbonyl 

  • Solid residue to be bagged and sold/stored 

  • Minor gaseous waste from thermal oxidizer, mostly CO2  

  • No process liquid waste 


Commercial Dissolution 

  • Liquid waste stream to be handled by on site water treatment to align with ODEQ  

  • Solid waste contained in liquid stream handled by same treatment facility 


Summary of Wood and Trade-Off studies 

  • The carbonyl process has a higher CAPEX, lower OPEX, and higher gross profit compared to traditional hydromet options.

  • The carbonyl process is more flexible (multiple feeds, multiple high purity and value add products: The value add is in specialty products, nickel powder with specific morphology or purity for customers, they pay above standard due to requiring difficult specifications only achievable through carbonyl.

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